1. Secondment opportunity: You Understood Ltd

    Are you a PhD student or post-doctoral researcher interested in digital technology? Would you like to gain experience in the research and development of a mobile app?

    Translate MedTech is offering the opportunity to work with You Understood Ltd. They are seeking a PhD student or post-doctoral researcher who is interested in digital technology, and can help research and apply the concept of gamification to their mobile app.

    The main focuses of the secondment will be:

    1) to assist in identifying research into gamification and digital health that supports their hypothesis that the application of gamification within an app encourages users to invest and maintain the necessary time and effort to gain the maximum benefits for their own mental health

    2) to further help define possible methodologies for implementing gamification into an app

    This opportunity is available at two days (or 15 hours) per week for two months, starting as soon as possible.

    The successful candidate will have an interest in digital technology for good, knowledge of gamification in mobile apps, its advantages and how to implement it, and the skills required to present research to a broad spectrum of team members. A basic understanding of mental healthcare will be useful but not essential.

    You Understood Ltd is based in Edinburgh, but you will be expected to work remotely, with team collaboration via video conferencing. There may be potential for face to face group meetings, but this will be entirely dependent on what is permitted by coronavirus restrictions at the time. Funding is available to cover travel and accommodation.

    DOWNLOAD APPLICATION FORM

    DOWNLOAD GUIDENCE DOCUMENT

    Completed applications should be sent to Mohua Siddique (m.siddique@leeds.ac.uk) by 12pm Monday 29 March.

    About You Understood Ltd

    You Understood Ltd is a technology startup aiming to improve mental health and wellbeing through the creation of a mobile app. By tracking emotions and using artificial intelligence and machine learning to provide data analytics and intelligent insights back to the user, the app will identify patterns of behaviour and external influences that affect wellbeing. By increasing self-awareness, we hope that users will be better able to make fact-based decisions that will positively impact their emotional health.

    If you have any questions, please contact Mohua Siddique.

  2. Secondment opportunity: PeopleDotCom Ltd

    Are you a PhD student or post-doctoral researcher interested in the digital health ecosystem? Would you like to work alongside digital health experts?

    Translate MedTech are offering the opportunity to work with PeopleDotCom Ltd. They are seeking a PhD student, post-doctoral researcher or early career academic who is interested in learning about the complex formal and informal digital health ecosystem.

    The successful candidate will support PeopleDotCom in:

    ● mapping and codifying the digital health ecosystem

    ● creating an architecture for how to navigate the system

    ● supporting the development of a specification for creating a marketplace and automating elements of the system that lend themselves to a digital platform

    This opportunity is available at three days per week for three months and all work will be remote. There is the opportunity for face-to-face collaboration should things change with the pandemic. The primary location of PeopleDotCom is London with a secondary base in Leeds.

    The successful candidate will have a systematic logical mindset, the ability to map systems and relationships within them, and to create a codified map as the starting point for a platform specification. The individual will be equally happy to work autonomously and as part of a small highly dedicated team. Basic knowledge of and/or interest in the digital health ecosystem is an advantage but not essential.

    DOWNLOAD APPLICATION FORM

    DOWNLOAD GUIDENCE DOCUMENT

    Completed applications should be sent to Mohua Siddique (m.siddique@leeds.ac.uk) by 12pm Monday 29 March.


    About PeopleDotCom Ltd

    PeopleDotCom Ltd is a digital health consultancy working with the NHS, startups, academia and other system partners. The company was founded by Dr Victoria Betton. An author and public speaker, Victoria specialises in digital strategy, policy and transformation for social impact. She is a qualified social worker and coach with 20+ years’ experience in local government, third sector and the NHS. She previously founded mHabitat, a successful NHS hosted digital health consultancy and Co>Space North, tech for good collaboration space. Her current positions include:
    • Managing director – PeopleDotCom Ltd
    • Chief Innovation Officer – Mindwave Ventures Ltd
    • HIMSS UK Advisory Board – member
    • techUK Health and Care Council – vice chair
    • techUK/NHSD/NHSx User-centred Design Group – co-chair
    • Grow MedTech Advisory Board – member
    • NHSE Clinical Entrepreneur Programme & NHS Digital Academy mentor
    • Solace charity trustee & Hackney Quest volunteer.
    Victoria has created Six-Steps as a startup to help digital health innovators navigate the digital health ecosystem and access the help they need to get to market.

    If you have any questions, please contact Mohua Siddique.

  3. Secondment opportunity: Medipex

    Are you a PhD student or post-doctoral researcher interested in novel technologies? Would you like to gain experience in identifying and evaluating new technology ideas?

    Translate MedTech is offering the opportunity to work with Medipex. They are seeking a post-doctoral researcher or early career academic who is interested in helping to identify and assess novel technologies that could deliver patient benefit with a view to securing investment to take such technologies to market.

    The successful candidate will help to:

    • source new technology ideas (from NHS, University and SME sectors) that fit a defined remit (e.g. in terms of clinical area, technology type and potential market)

    • evaluate those ideas in terms of commercial potential (clinical need, market size and IP protection).

    • present the findings to potential investors and/or commercial partners in order to secure a route to market for the best candidate technologies.

    This opportunity is available at 1-2 days (or 7.5-15 hours) per week for 3 months. The ability to be flexible with days would be advantageous.

    Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the Medipex team are all working from home. The successful candidate will need to be prepared to also work from home or such other remote location and communicate with other members of the team via telephone and/or Zoom. A computer/laptop that can access Googledrive will also be necessary. Should things change, then it may be that the candidate will be asked to attend the official offices, which are located at Thorpe Park, Leeds, LS15 8GB, either for work, meetings or both.

    Some knowledge of Intellectual Property and the steps involved in taking a healthcare product to market would be advantageous. Basic IT and research skills, as well as the ability to interact with different stakeholders (e.g. NHS, services users, industry, University) are expected as a minimum.

    DOWNLOAD APPLICATION FORM

    DOWNLOAD GUIDENCE DOCUMENT

    Completed applications should be sent to Mohua Siddique (m.siddique@leeds.ac.uk) by 12pm Monday 29 March.


    About Medipex

    Medipex is a healthcare innovation hub working with the NHS, industry and academia to improve patient care. We aim to accelerate knowledge transfer by bringing together the necessary key partners and by providing expert advice and support to take new healthcare products to market.

    If you have any questions, please contact Mohua Siddique.

  4. Secondment opportunities: Versus Arthritis

    Are you a PhD student or post-doctoral researcher interested in research engagement? Would you like to gain experience showcasing the impact of research to a wide audience?

    Translate MedTech is offering the opportunity to work with Versus Arthritis. They are seeking two PhD students or post-doctoral researchers to work with their Research Engagement team. The team showcase the impact of research funded by Versus Arthritis and their main functions are communication, public engagement, data analysis and managing the network of research volunteers.

    Secondment 1: Research Involvement Team

    It is anticipated that the candidate would support the researcher element of the Involvement review. This would include helping to plan and run insight gathering activities to determine how researchers want to be supported in involving patients in their research and what their expectations of the charity are. It would also include analysis and report writing and working with colleagues on the wider review. Versus Arthritis are keen to offer a wide experience to align with candidate interests so there could also be opportunity for other work such as volunteer communications or website content creation.

    Secondment 2: Research Evaluation Team

    The successful candidate will carry out a variety of tasks related to deriving insight from the research portfolio. Versus Arthritis are keen to match tasks to the skills and interests of the candidate so examples of tasks could be:

    • Investigations into Versus Arthritis’ research portfolio generating insight and information for a range of audiences and for charity reporting purposes. This could be to answer specific queries about the projects we are funding or to report on trends and future directions.

    • Analysing researcher reported outcomes and impacts of their research projects and providing clear summaries for a general audience in a range of formats

    • Woking with Research Engagement colleagues to produce communication materials, such as blogs and webpage content, to share insights and stories gained from analysing our research activities.

    These opportunities can be fully flexible, full- or part-time, up to a maximum of three months starting in April 2021. It is expected that these secondments will be delivered remotely. The successful candidates will be provided with the equipment needed to perform their roles.

    The successful secondees would be required to demonstrate the following skills:
    • An undergraduate qualification in a relevant discipline
    • ability to summarise scientific and technical detail in an accessible format
    • ability to engage with patient- expert, scientific and medical community at all levels
    • excellent organisational and time management skills
    • attention to detail and high standards of accuracy
    • excellent inter-personal skills
    • ability to work on own initiative
    • good excel and general IT skills
    • ability to work effectively as part of a team and individually
    • a sensitive attitude when dealing with confidential information.

    DOWNLOAD APPLICATION FORM

    DOWNLOAD GUIDENCE DOCUMENT

    Completed applications should be sent to Mohua Siddique (m.siddique@leeds.ac.uk) by 12pm Monday 29 March.

    About Versus Arthritis

    We are Versus Arthritis. We are volunteers, healthcare professionals, researchers and friends, all doing everything we can to push back against arthritis. We’re reaching out to everybody with the information and support they need, funding vital research and changing the way society sees arthritis. Together we’ll keep running, researching, influencing, volunteering, advising, chatting, baking, listening. We won’t stop until no-one has to tolerate living with the pain, fatigue and isolation of arthritis.
    Join us and use your skills, knowledge, passion and energy to help us defy arthritis.

    If you have any questions, please contact Mohua Siddique.

  5. COVID-19 Hackathon paper published in the British Medical Journal

    The results of the MedTech Foundation’s COVID-19 Innovation Response Virtual Hackathon have  been published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ).

    Translate MedTech sponsored the Hackathon, which took place in April 2020, and sought to address critical health-related issues resulting from COVID-19.

    One hundred and twenty three potential innovators – 64 academics, 38 medical students, 12 industry representatives and 9 NHS doctors – gathered online to address challenge topics ranging from hospital care and public health to health education and digital training. They were split into multidisciplinary project teams, and successfully generated 12 unique solution concepts by the end of the virtual hackathon.

    Read our full write up of the event.

  6. Translate MedTech 2021 training and development courses

    Translate MedTech have announced their 2021 training programme, with nine online courses available.

    The Translate MedTech Training and Development Programme is delivered through a flexible, pick and mix programme of introductory, stand-alone training courses, designed to equip researchers with the skills needed to translate research ideas into medical technology products and clinical solutions.

    All courses are free to attend for PhD students, researchers, academics and business development staff in any one of the Translate partner universities: (Bradford, Huddersfield, Leeds, Leeds Beckett, Sheffield Hallam and York).

    Courses will be delivered online for 2021.

    Places on the virtual courses are available for industry and clinical representatives at a cost of £45, please email Mohua Siddique to secure your ticket.

  7. Translate MedTech supports COVID-19 Innovation Response Hackathon

    Translate MedTech were proud supporters of the MedTech Foundation’s recent COVID-19 Innovation Response Virtual Hackathon, which ran between Friday 3 April and Sunday 5 April and sought to address critical health-related issues resulting from COVID-19.

    How it worked

    123 potential innovators (64 academics, 38 medical students, 12 industry representatives and 9 NHS doctors) gathered to address challenge topics ranging from hospital care and public health to health education and digital training.

    Participants were split into multi-disciplinary teams, connected via online messaging, teleconferencing and file sharing platforms, and asked to each submit a project proposal and business canvass by the end of weekend.

    Hackathon outcomes

    The project teams successfully generated 12 unique solution concepts by the end of the virtual hackathon.

    In the 11 days since, the following has been achieved:

    • Development has begun on three digital solutions, each of which is now at beta-stage for preliminary testing (one solution, MedWise, can be found online here).
    • One project team is due to submit an application for collaborative development funding imminently – if successful, further development will begin immediately.
    • Another team has finished developing a data collection app to help the Cambridge Clinical Trials Unit collect data for their COVID-19 research.

    William Bolton, NHS Doctor and MedTech Foundation Co-Founder said “This was the first hackathon we have run virtually, and I was unsure if it would work. I am pleased to report it went better than expected. The teams really took to it and there was so much interdisciplinary collaboration contributing to the fight against COVID-19.

    It’s a timely reminder that working with different disciplines is essential in medtech, and now we know that we can do this virtually, it opens up a whole new direction for the MedTech Foundation.

    Our work isn’t possible without the continued support of our long-term partners. A huge thank you goes particularly to Translate MedTech and the NIHR Surgical MIC for their support in delivering this hackathon and moving the ideas forward.”

    Future opportunities to get involved

    The MedTech Foundation team hope to run more virtual innovation workshops and hackathons in the coming weeks. If you’d like to be involved, follow MedTech Foundation on Facebook or Twitter to be among the first to know when a new activity is launched.

    We are continuously updating our website with opportunities for medtech innovators to provide support for frontline healthcare workers, click here to learn more.

  8. Delivering Enterprise Training – virtually

    This post was written by Viadynamics, the team that delivered Translate MedTech‘s recent Business Case Planning and Pitching training course. They wrote about their experience of adapting their course for virtual delivery on short notice.

    We wanted to share this with our community as we feel it’s important to showcase examples of people successfully adapting to the current challenging circumstances in order to deliver innovation support within the region.

    We are currently working with our delivery partners to understand whether upcoming Translate MedTech courses can also be delivered virtually. If you would be interested in taking part, you can still browse the courses on our website and register your interest.


    Like organisations the world over, the Viadynamics team is now working virtually to safeguard our people – and to continue our mission to make innovation and enterprise happen. We have all located to our various home-offices, adapting to the ‘new normal’ – and finding new ways of working creatively and productively.

    We hope you are all well and safe, and that you too are managing your way through the lockdown, both personally and professionally.

    Over the last few years we have been delivering a range of enterprise training courses and seminars to academics and students. For the most part these have been face-to-face events, where delegates bring their own projects, and work on them throughout. 

    We believe in ‘learning by doing’ – building enterprise capability while accelerating and de-risking opportunities.  We use a variety of frameworks, relevant examples and group work – and it’s a formula that works, with consistently positive feedback.

    We recently ran our first full-day virtual enterprise workshop using an online video collaboration platform with a cohort of academics from six Universities in the Leeds and Sheffield City Regions.

    Leveraging features including virtual break-out rooms and other online tools, we were able to come really close to achieving the interactive face-to-face workshops that we love to run. 

    We judged it a success, as did our client Translate MedTech.  We would particularly like to thank Mohua Siddique and Danielle Miles for taking the leap of faith with us and sticking to the plan for delivering the course as scheduled, as well as the delegates for participating so actively in this ‘experiment’. 

    Here are some examples of delegates’ take on the day:

    The use of [virtual conferencing platform] worked well and the breakout room function was great’

    It was a really good event and glad you still delivered it – keep up the good work!

    Extremely useful guidelines and tools to assess a potential business opportunity….useful for academics to get exposed to the business side’.

    We are keen to do more!  To chat through how we might be able to support your Institution – or indeed if you are planning to run an interactive training event and would like us to share some top tips, please do contact us

    We can set up a videoconference, demonstrate some of the features we have found particularly useful, and explore how we might be able to support you in this ‘new normal’.


    About Viadynamics

    Viadynamics has over twenty-one years’ experience of helping global businesses, start-ups, universities, GOs and NGOs to address innovation opportunities, challenges and dilemmas.

    They design and deliver training courses, seminars and accelerator programmes to up-skill people and accelerate opportunities. They also provide mentorship, market specialists and domain experts to new and growing ventures.

    You can learn more about them on their website here.

  9. Interventional X-ray expert seeks new test tool

    Translate MedTech’s Secondment Scheme is designed to develop the innovation skills and translational capability of medical technology researchers in the Leeds City Region. This blog is part of a series that showcases the impact that secondments have had on medtech research, as recounted from the secondee’s perspective.

    Due to the success of the scheme, it is being run again in 2020. To find out how to apply for Translate secondment funding for your medtech research, click here.


    Name: Dr Amber Gislason-Lee
    Host organisation during the secondment: Guys and St Thomas' Trust
    (London) and UZ Leuven (Belgium)

    My name is Dr Amber Gislason-Lee and I teach medical imaging science and technology to radiography students at the University of Bradford’s School of Allied Health Professionals.

    My background is in medical physics, which puts me in a unique position to teach this topic and to contribute to research in medical imaging.

    I previously worked under the mentorship of Arnold Cowen, who designed the original Leeds Test Objects before they were bought by a commercial company outside of Leeds. 

    One area of research which I have many years of experience in is interventional X-ray imaging. For that reason, I am on a working group for the Institute of Physicists and Engineers in Medicine (IPEM) to write a quality assurance (QA) guidance document for medical physicists testing interventional X-ray systems.

    This guidance document has been challenging for the group to write, one of the main reasons being a lack of X-ray test object to mimic the motion of a human heart, to check for temporal and spatial resolution of the X-ray system at hand.

    These aspects of image quality allow for better accuracy in treating patients via angioplasty, radiofrequency ablation and other life-saving interventional cardiovascular procedures. Since joining the University of Bradford last year I have discovered the collaborative potential between radiography and engineering and reached out to some engineering colleagues to discuss potential projects to address ongoing X-ray research problems to be solved.

    One of the results of these was a collaborative relationship with Peter Twigg from Engineering. After a successful application for medtech funding to support a summer student engineering project, we had a prototype X-ray test object which addressed the needs brought to light by the IPEM group.

    Although I found the prototype seemed potentially useful and affordable for hospital physics departments, I needed to run it by my colleagues who have more day-to-day testing experience than me. I am an academic involved with teaching and research in medical physics and they are hospital physicists doing routine testing and troubleshooting, so there is a big difference between these roles.

    Given their busy schedules we made arrangements for a short meeting at the end of the workday (in hopes the patients would be finished with the X-ray machines) – only a few hours long. This secondment allowed for the funding of travel to these meetings.

    Test Object well-received at visit 1 of 2

    There are two key medical physics experts whom I sought to visit for this secondment, to bring the test object prototype to them in person, show them how it works and potentially view it under X-rays should an interventional X-ray system be available for use.

    Ian Honey works as a hospital physicist at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Trust in London, UK. Nick Marshall, formerly of St Barts Hospital, London, works at UZ Leuven in Belgium and is now an active member of the European medical physics community.

    Both these experts have written IPEM QA guide books previously, and both have expressed their desire for a test object such as the one designed at Bradford. I should clarify that during my previous conversations with these experts they communicated what was required of the test object, however, they did not have any specific ideas for its design and how it would achieve its goals.

    The design by Peter Twigg is very unusual, different than any of the Leeds Test Object designs that physicists around the world are accustomed to using. For this reason, I did not provide any details about the test object prior to arriving on-site and opening the box. I only divulged its uniqueness.

    In London, Ian had 2 colleagues with him as well as a (dated) X-ray system to use for testing. The comments were very positive from all 3 physicists, generally foreseeing the test object as a troubleshooting tool for situations where clinical X-ray systems have had temporal blur issues reported. We spent a few hours testing the object using a range of clinically relevant experimental setups, and I captured both stills and videos on my phone (see attached).

    We all enjoyed ourselves and it made me proud to bring our design form the North to such a prestigious London hospital. Ian and Nick are very different from each other, though both very honest – so although I was very excited about the positive response from Ian I was very keen to see what Nick had to say before I let my excitement take off!

    Moving forward with the product design

    After my first meeting, I learned that it’s always worth ‘having a go’ at making something if you have the right people to do it! I was nervous about showing the test object to Ian, but it was well-reviewed. This is something I had never done before and it required a certain level of confidence in my own level of expertise in my subject area.

    Nick, for very different reasons than Ian, also supported the test object design and could see its usefulness should some further testing be done on a modern interventional X-ray system. He offered to do these tests at his site in Belgium in the coming months.

    Nick is one of a handful of medical physicists in the world who have access to unprocessed X-ray image data from an imaging system manufacturer, and this is a necessity for test object testing/validating. Even if Nick hadn’t liked it at all that would have been useful information to determine our next steps with the prototype – but what a fantastic result! 

    My next step is to meet with Peter and determine what our next steps should be to complete the design with the intent of turning the prototype into a commercially available product for medical physicists to purchase for use at their hospitals.

    We also plan to show the test object to the entire interventional X-ray physics community at a national meeting on 1st May. The organiser of the meeting has put aside a time for Peter to bring the test object to the meeting in the hopes of receiving more detailed feedback from its potential users to feed into specific aspects of its final design.

    There are 2 reasons why I really appreciate this secondment:

    1. I felt there was a definite need to show this test object to these 2 experts prior to anyone else and to do it IN PERSON. The travel was required in order to determine their initial reaction, and collect their suggestions for improvements and features to include in the design.
    2. I have no experience with ‘inventing’ a product, however, I feel I was well-positioned to communicate the requirements of the product. I have gained confidence in developing medical technology to address issues that I understand.

    I would recommend this experience to anyone in a similar position – go for it!

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    If you could benefit from support while progressing a medical technology towards commercialisation, or if you want to develop innovation skills then consider applying for a Translate MedTech secondment.

    Our latest call is open to applications, and further detail can be found on our website here. You can also contact Mohua Siddique with any questions you might have about the scheme.

  10. Learning the benefits of PPI

    Translate MedTech’s Secondment Scheme is designed to develop the innovation skills and translational capability of medical technology researchers in the Leeds City Region. This article is part of a series that showcases the impact that secondments have had on medtech research, as recounted from the secondee’s perspective.

    Due to the success of the scheme, it is being run again in 2020. To find out how to apply for Translate secondment funding for your medtech research, click here.


    Name: Patrick Lawson-Statham
    Host organisation during the secondment: Versus Arthritis

    Patrick Lawson-Statham is two years into his PhD research, looking at using decellularized tissue from pigs to regenerate a patient’s own cartilage following damage caused by osteoarthritis. 

    Through Translate MedTech, Patrick secured a 12-week secondment to Versus Arthritis, a national charity committed to improving the lives of people living with arthritis. Here’s what he had to say about the opportunity:

    “I heard about the secondment opportunity in the Research Liaison and Evaluation team at Versus Arthritis during a staff meeting and thought it sounded really interesting.

    After discussing it with my supervisor, Dr Hazel Fermor, I arranged to talk to Mohua Siddique, Translate MedTech’s Innovation Development Officer. She was brilliant, helping me put a strong application together.

    I had an interview at Versus Arthritis, and shortly after, Mohua let me know I’d been successful. It was a very easy, smooth process.

    The secondment allowed me to spend two days per week, with travel expenses, at the charity’s Chesterfield offices. I also visited the London office and had to travel up and down the UK a fair bit too.

    The Research Liaison and Evaluation team has a wide variety of functions, including liaising with Versus Arthritis-funded researchers across the UK and providing research information to other teams across the charity, such as communications and fundraising.

    Day to day, my role covered collecting, collating, translating and sharing information and data about funded research to whoever needed it, both internally and externally.

    I was also tasked with producing a booklet to encourage and guide researchers through the basics of incorporating Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) into their research. PPI is a key requirement of all research funded by the charity.

    This was a really interesting and valuable project. I gained experience and managed activities that I’d never done before – interviewing patients, writing case studies, organising photography, liaising with graphic designers to structure the content and layout.

    I’ve really enjoyed seeing how the booklet developed; in fact, while my secondment officially finished in July, I’m going to stay involved as it’s so close to being printed and I really want to see it completed!

    Having learned so much about the benefits of PPI, I realised that my own research lacked a PPI element, and have already taken steps to address that.

    I’ve spoken to a colleague at the university and we’re getting the ball rolling on involving a patient in my research. It’s definitely something that I’ll carry forward in my research career.  

    Before the secondment, everything I did was purely research-focused and in the laboratory. The secondment has given me a wider perspective of research and an appreciation of how the skills I have can be applied in my future career.

    I’ve translated research into lay language, run focus groups, worked with patients and delivered presentations, so it’s helped me communicate my research to non-scientific audiences much better. 

    I also learned a great deal about the grant application, evaluation and approval process at Versus Arthritis. Gaining insight from a funder’s perspective, together with my greater understanding of the importance of PPI, will definitely help me to strengthen future grant applications. 

    Overall, it’s been a fantastic and highly beneficial experience. I’m extremely grateful to Translate for enabling this opportunity to develop both personally and professionally. If another secondment opportunity arose, I’d jump at the chance.

    On the secondment, Dr Katherine Free, Research Engagement Manager at Versus Arthritis, said: “We find the secondments extremely enjoyable and valuable and they give researchers an idea of other career choices beyond academia and industry.

    Patrick was a joy to work with and he made the booklet project his own, bringing some really creative ideas and improvements to the table.

    The end result will be a valuable resource for many researchers around the UK, and make the research we fund more relevant to the ultimate beneficiary – people with arthritis.”

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    If you could benefit from support while progressing a medical technology towards commercialisation, or if you want to develop innovation skills then consider applying for a Translate MedTech secondment.

    Our latest call is open to applications, and further detail can be found on our website here. You can also contact Mohua Siddique with any questions you might have about the scheme.